The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  The Paris Agreement is the first legally binding universal global agreement on climate change adopted at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) in December 2015. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. In addition, countries are working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.  On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.  Under Article 28, the effective withdrawal date of the United States is the fastest possible date, given that the agreement entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be informed immediately (the UNFCCC came into force in 1994 for the United States) and come into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could only be submitted after three years of implementation of the agreement for the United States in 2019.   Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement.